A is for Aden and Z is for Zanzabar


A is for Aden and Z is for Zanzibar... Now what is between? For the world wide classical era philatelist and stamp collector, a country specific philatelic survey is offered by the blog author, Jim Jackson, with two albums: Big Blue, aka Scott International Part 1 (checklists available), and Deep Blue, aka William Steiner's Stamp Album Web PDF pages. Interested? So into the Blues...

Sunday, December 28, 2014

Peru

1860-61 Scott 9 1d blue "Coat of Arms"
Zigzag Lines in Spandrels
Quick History
Peru, home of the Inca Empire, was conquered and colonized by Pizarro and the Spanish, with the Viceroyalty of Peru established in Lima by 1542. The Viceroyalty, which initially had authority over all of Spanish South America, persisted until 1824.

Although wars with Spain (1810-1824), and  Jose de San Martin's  proclamation for Peru in 1821 gained independence, the country subsequently slid into territorial disputes with it's neighbors through 1884.

1879 Map of Peru, Bolivia and Chile
The War of the Pacific (1879-1883) was devastating for Peru, as they were defeated by the Chileans. (One can argue the Bolivians had even a worse result, as they lost the Litoral Province and their sea access to Chile.)

Lima was occupied (1881), and the nitrate rich territory of Tarapaca was acquired by Chile. It took until 1929 to solve the Arica province (to Chile) and the Tacna province (to Peru) territorial disputes.

You think the old resentments are gone now? I talked to an acquaintance of mine, who is a professor of Latin American History (and who grew up in Peru), and they certainly are not.

 Peru Today
But bad news for a country is sometimes good news for collectors. There are interesting (and inexpensive ) overprinted Chilean occupation stamps, as well the overprinted provisional issues produced in outlying areas; as both Lima and Callao, the source of stamps, were occupied. The fly in the ointment, of course, are the numerous counterfeit overprints.

The Capital is Lima, and the population was 7,200,000 in 1942.

1886 Scott 115 1s brown
"Sun God of the Incas"
Into the Deep Blue
The 2011 Scott Classic 1840-1940 catalogue has, for Peru 1857-1938, 357 regular, 64 air post, 3 special delivery, 58 postage due, 34 official, 9 parcel post, 29 postal tax, 12 occupation (Chilean), and 113 provisional stamps during the 1879-82 Chilean-Peruvian War. Total = 629.

Of those, 378 are CV <$1-$1+, or 60%. Clearly, Peru, like many Latin American countries, is reasonable in CV price for WW classical era collectors.

Peruvian stamp issues, as is also true of it's South American neighbors, I find quite interesting. But I will limit myself to one blog post for Peru. Therefore, I will concentrate, for discussion purposes, on the earlier 1860-1894 issues.

A closer look at the stamps and issues
8 Reales = 1 Peso (1857)
100 Centimos = 8 Dineros =
4 Pesetas = 1 Peso (1858)
100 Centavos = 1 Sol (1874)
1868 Scott 14 1d green "Coat of Arms"
The famous Pacific Steam Navigation Co. produced stamps of 1857 are expensive ($2000+), with numerous forgeries. If you are interested in them- you are reading the wrong blog- I will say no more about them. ;-)

In 1860, Peru acquired a French made "Lecoq" press that could emboss and create imperforate stamps from horizontal strips. The above image is an example. The postmark is from "Jauja". This lovely little colonial town, at 11,200 feet (3,400 meters), had the first cathedral built in South America, and was the provisional capital in 1534.

1866-67 Scott 18 20c brown "Llamas"
What is the first image that springs to mind about Peru? I think of  Llamas. ;-) An engraved three stamp design with that iconic indigenous domestic camelid was produced in 1866-67.

1871 Scott 19 5c scarlet 
"Locomotive and Arms"
This embossed  1871 imperforate (known as the "Trencito") is considered one of the very first commemorative stamps produced. The occasion was the 20th anniversary of the completion of a railroad line between Lima and Callao, the first railroad  in South America.

1876 Scott 25 10c green "Coat of Arms"
Between 1874-84, a nine stamp engraved issue with two motifs ("Sun God of the Incas" and "Coat of Arms") was produced.

The "Coat of Arms" design ( 2,5,10,20 centavo denominations) is also found as a lithographic forgery, created by the infamous Spiro Brothers of Hamburg.

Varro Tyler (Focus on Forgeries -2000) points out the genuine has a long attached tail on the "Q" in FRANQUERO in the genuine, while the forgery has no attached tail.

Embossed with Grill
The 1874-84 issue was also embossed with a grill, which is quite apparent on the stamp back.

1874 Scott 27 20c brown red
Getting back to the Spiro forgeries, here the 20c brown red has a drawing of a  tree in the top right part of the shield. The top of the tree does not touch the line above it in the genuine (One may need to enlarge the stamp to see this). In the forgery, the top of the tree touches the line above it.

1860 Scott 30 1c green
"Sun God of the Incas"
The 1c green "Sun God of the Incas" stamp, prepared in 1880, was not issued without an overprint. (We will see examples of overprinted specimens soon.) But one does find unused specimens in collections, as shown here, and Scott does give the stamp a catalogue number.

The Inca ruler was considered to be the living representative of Inti, the Sun God.

Of interest, the great golden disk representing Inti captured by by the conquistadors in 1571 and sent to the pope has been unfortunately lost.

1880 Scott 33 2c rose, blue overprint
Stamps of 1874-80 overprinted in Red, Blue, or Black
Between 1880-83, the issues were overprinted with "Plata" ( money or silver), "Union Postal Universal", "Peru", and "Lima". I suspect this served for inventory control purposes during the 1879-83 War of the Pacific.

The 1880 six stamp overprinted issue is illustrated here.

1883 Scott 65 1c orange, black overprint
A 1883 seven stamp issue was handstamped as shown in black or blue.

1883 Scott 86 1c green
Black & Black Overprint
This 1883 six stamp issue had the triangle and the horseshoe overprints.

1883 Scott 96 2c vermilion
Overprinted Horseshoe Alone
Another 1883 six stamp issue only had the horseshoe overprint.

1895 Scott 109 5c claret "Llamas"
Without Overprint or Grill
The 1886-95 twelve stamp issue had the same designs as previous issues, but in different colors, and without the grill or overprint. CV is a very modest <$1-$2+.

1894 Scott 124 50c green
"Pres. Remigio Morales Bermudez"
Stamps of 1874-80 Overprinted in Black
The president of Peru between 1890 - 1894 was Remigo Morales Bermudez. He died on April 1, 1894, but an eight stamp set was produced on October 23, 1894 as homage to him by overprinting his image in black.

Of interest, his grandson, Francisco Morales Bermudez, was president of Peru from 1975-1980.

1894 Scott 125 2c vermilion
Additional Overprint of Horseshoe 
Also in 1894, the overprinted image of the recently deceased president was applied to four stamps with the horseshoe overprint applied.

1882 Scott N23 1s ultramarine, red overprint
Stamps of Peru 1874-80, Overprinted
Issued during Chilean Occupation
Between 1881-82, while Chilean troops occupied Lima and Callao, twelve stamps were overprinted in red, blue, or black. Seven of the stamps only had the Chilean overprint, while five stamps also had a black horseshoe overprint (shown).

The CV is <$1-$1+ for eight stamps. Naturally, there are overprint counterfeits, and since you or I probably do not have the expertise to authenticate, buy cheap. ;-)

If one truly wishes to explore further, joining the Peru Philatelic Study Circle would be a good idea.

1884 Scott 3N13 5c blue
Arequipa  Provisional Issue
On Regular Issue of Peru
During the The War of the Pacific (1879-1883) and aftermath, the usual stamp supply to outlying provinces from Lima was not available. Hence, one can find overprinted provisional issues from what was at hand from 14 towns/provinces during this period.

This is more a specialists playground (There are plenty of overprint counterfeits), but the general classic era WW collector may wish some of these fascinating stamps. 

1885 Scott 3N25 5c blue, black overprint
"Rear Admiral M. L. Grau"
Arequipa Provisional
Miguel Grau Seminario was a Peruvian naval officer, and is considered a hero of the War of the Pacific.
He was also well respected by his Chilean adversaries, and he was known as El Caballero de los Mares ("Gentleman of the Seas").

Deep Blue
1916 Issue, 1909 Stamps Surcharged in Red, Green or Violet
Deep Blue (Steiner) has 57 pages, including a space for all the provisional issues. Nice.

1881 Scott 40 5c ultramarine "Coat of Arms"
Stamps of 1874-80 Overprinted in Red or Blue
Big Blue
Big Blue '69, on 12 pages, has 314 spaces for the stamp of Peru. Coverage is 50%.

There is only one stamp space that requires a "Most expensive stamp", and that is because of a blank space choice- 1863 (Scott 13) 1p brown ($37+).

Checklist

1862-72
12,14,(13),

1866
16,17,18,

1874-84
21,22,23 or 24,25 or 26,27

1880
32,35,

1881
38,

1883
80, (81),

1883
65,69,(68),(71),88,89,

1883
95,96,

1884
103,

1889
117,117A,

Next Page

1886
104,106,108,110,112,114,115,

1894
118,119,120,121,123,125,126,

1895-96
105,107,109,111,113,

1895
134,(135),

1896-97
141,143,145,146,148,150.

1896-97
151,152,

1897
154,155,156,

1897
157,

1899-1900
142,144,147,149,

Next Page

1901
161,162,163,

1902
164,

1905
165,

1907
166,167,

1907-08
168,169,170,

1907-08
171,172,173,174,175,

1909
177,178,179,180,181,182,183,
184,185,

1916
196,197,198,199,

1916
201,204,205,206,(207),

1917
208,

Next Page

1917-18
209,210,211,212,213,214,215,216,

1917-18
217,218,219,

1921
222,223,

1921
224,227,228,230,225,226,

1920
220,221,

1923-24
232,233,

1924
234,235,

1924
236,237,238,239,240,

1924-29
242,243,
244,245,246,247,248,249,250,

Next Page

1925
252,245A,

1930
272,273,274,275,

1931
283,284,285,286,
287,288,289,

1931-32
293,292,295,296,297,298,299,

1932
300,301,

1932
302,303,304,

1932-34
305 or 306,307,308,309,

Next Page

1932-34
311,312,313,314,315,316,

1932-35
317,318,319,320,323,

1934-36
321,322,339,340,

1935
324,325,328,
326,327,329,330,334,
332,333,

Next Page

1935
336,335,337,

1936
341,

1936
342,343,344,345,
346,347,348,

1936-37
356,357,

1936-37
358,359,362,360,361,
363,364,365,366,

Next Page

1936-37
368,369,367,370,371,

1938
375,378,380,
376,377,379,
382,381,383,384,
385,386,387,

Next Page

Air Post
1928-34
C4,C2,C5,

1935
C6,C7,C8,C9,

1935-37
C10,C13,C30 or C31,
C16,C18,C20,C23,
C26,C28 or C29,C32 or C33,C34 or C35,

Next Page

1936-37
C25,C27,C17,C19,
C21,C22,C24,C27,
C45,C46,C47,C48,
C49,C52,C53,C54,
C50,C51,C62,C63,

Next Page

Postage Due
1874-79
J1,J2,J3,(J4),

1881-84
5c vermilion: J7 or J12 or J18 or J23
10c orange: J8 ot J13 or J19 or J24
1c bistre: J6 or J11 or J16 or J17 or J22

1896-97
J28,J29,J30,J31,

1902
J37,

1909
J40,J41,J42,J43,

Official Stamps
1889
O2,(O3),

1894
O9,O11,O12,O15,O18,

1896
O23,O24,

1901
O25,

1909
O27,O29,

Next Page

Postal Tax
1925-26
RA1,RA2,RA3,
RA6,

1927-28
RA7,RA8,RA9,RA11,

1928
RA13,

1931
RA17,

1932-34
RA19,RA20,

1933-35
RA21,RA22,RA23,

1937-38
RA26,RA29,

End

Comments
A) Expensive stamps ($10 threshold):
1863 (Scott 13) 1p brown ($37+)
B) (    ) around a number indicates a blank space choice.

1889 Scott 116
Overprinted Horseshoe in Black and 
Triangle in Rose Red
Out of the Blue
Peru is one of those countries where I would love to become more familiar with their issues- ah, the siren clarion of specialization is calling. ;-)

Note: maps appear to be in the public domain.

Comments appreciated!

2 comments:

  1. Belo trabalho y aprovectando envió os votos de FELIZ 2015, saludos

    ReplyDelete
  2. Happy New Year and best wishes to you in Brazil Postmail!

    Jim

    ReplyDelete