A is for Aden and Z is for Zanzabar


A is for Aden and Z is for Zanzibar... Now what is between? For the world wide classical era philatelist and stamp collector, a country specific philatelic survey is offered with two albums: Big Blue, aka Scott International Part 1 (checklists available), and Deep Blue, aka William Steiner's Stamp Album Web PDF pages. Interested? So into the Blues...

Monday, November 18, 2013

Who's afraid of watermarking the Brazil 1918-1941 series?

1929 Scott 308 500r ultramarine
"Commerce-Mercury"
Into the Deep Blue
If there is a stamp series that strikes terror in the philatelic hearts of  WW classical stamp collectors, the 1918-41 definitives of Brazil (Série vovó) may be at the top of the list.

Consider....
• Unwatermarked, 11 different watermarks!, and a watermark variation are found
• Spans 23 years with 17 issues of 3-22 stamps
• 41 significant face different or major color change groupings
• 149 spaces in Deep Blue (Steiner) for this series

Several years ago, when I was a relative philatelic greenhorn, I did post a blog about this series.

http://bigblue1840-1940.blogspot.com/2011/04/orphan-1920-41-definitives-of-brazil.html

There, I attempted to characterize by design, denomination, and major color grouping, but I was too intimidated by the myriad watermarks to attempt further classification.

Needless to say, it wasn't very satisfying. ;-)

But a lot of stamp watermarking "fluid" has passed under the philatelic bridge since then, and I feel like I am now ready. !!!!

The blog post is divided into two major sections...
• The first section reviews all the watermarks in which one needs to become familiar, using the Scott catalogue watermarks, and watermark pics of my stamps. I suggest scanning and printing the Brazil watermark page from your Scott catalogue to have by your side in conjunction with  my watermark pics when examining a stamp. My watermark image might show a different part of the watermark than Scott and vice versa. By the way, don't feel like one is a failure if only ~75% of the stamps have a "for sure" identification. That's my current yield. ;-)

• The second section groups by stamp design the 41 significant face different and major color types with a stamp illustration, and a list of the stamps (and watermark types) under that group. One should know quickly the possibilities for a particular stamp. ( Note: Because of the large scope and effort required covering watermarks, I have ignored perforations and paper (with a few exceptions) for a particular stamp.)

An effort of this type is not done in a philatelic vacuum, and I wish to acknowledge two reference sources that were helpful for me, and should be helpful to you too.

The Brazil Philatelic Association has a great overview on this series, with a short and sweet Design/Value/Color table with the possible (Scott) watermarks. I used these tables extensively, so I needn't become cross-eyed finding the specific stamps to group from the catalogue. I, however, lumped some of the more subtle color groups into a larger group, as "color" for these issues can vary widely, and is not a good first cut when evaluating a stamp.

Keijo, of http://www.stampcollectingblog.com fame, has a great blog post about the Série volvó stamps. He suggested the little 6-7-8 mm height measuring tool I use for letter watermarks. But, more importantly, he has developed a spreadsheet encompassing his review of four catalogues with these issues. The spreadsheet is full of information. Thanks Keijo!

Finally, an obvious acknowledgement that I am not a Brazil specialist. Far from it. ;-) I'm sure there could be errors around the edges, and I would appreciate learning about them.

Section 1; A closer look at the watermarks
Watermark Index
(Note: It is helpful to view the watermark images in conjunction with the Scott watermark illustrations.)
(Note: For watermarks, as viewed on the back of a stamp, many are mirror imaged, and the script is read from right to left.)
• Unwatermarked
• Watermark 100*- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters ~17 mm high
• Watermark 101*- Stars and CASA DA MOEDA
• Watermark 193- ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRASIL, letters 17mm high
• Watermark 218- E U BRASIL, multiple, letters 8mm high (Usual vertical orientation; also an echelon variation)
• Watermark 221 - ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRASIL, multiple, letters 6mm high
• Watermark 222- CORREIO BRASIL and 5 stars  in squared circle (Sheet watermark)
• Watermark 236*- Coat of Arms in sheet
• Watermark 245 - multiple "CASA DA MOEDA DO BRASIL" and small Formee cross, letters 6 mm+
• Watermark 249- "CORREIO BRASIL", multiple, letters 7 mm high
• Watermark 256- "CASA+DA+MOEDA+DO+BRASIL" in 7+-8mm high letters
• Watermark 264- "(star)CORREIO(star)BRASIL(star), multiple, letters 7mm high

Comments
* wmk 100- some stamps can also be unwatermarked, as the sheet watermark can miss them.
* wmk 101- two variations with slightly different spacing between stars; also CASA CASA  wmk error exists.
* wmk 236- The sheet watermark is only on 22 stamps, so the rest appear "unwatermarked", but laid thick paper is diagnostic.

Let's begin....
Unwatermarked
Unwatermarked
The first major series- the thirteen stamp 1920-22 issue- is unwatermarked. So how easy is that? It's not. ;-)
There are plenty of "gotchas". 
• Make sure that the stamp is actually unwatermarked, and does not have vague markings or light partial watermarks. Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet will often have only a partial letter marking. And a lightly Watermarked 222- CORREIO BRASIL and 5 stars  in squared circle can show up as vague markings. These are often the stamps that end up in the questionable/unknown pile, as a stamp has to cross a "certainty" threshold before it is put into the album. ;-) Fortunately, the 1918-41 series stamps as a whole are inexpensive, so one can be choosy.
• Some stamps that are unwatermarked do not belong here: specifically, the Watermark 236- Coat of Arms in sheet stamps, where 22 stamps of each sheet only have a watermark. But the Coat of Arms in sheet stamps have even a better marker- paper that is thick and stiff like cardboard- unmistakable. (Alas, the Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet can have 1-2 inch spaces between a watermark on the sheet. If no part of the watermark shows up, I actually don't know how one could tell the difference. Readers?)
Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high
Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters ~17 mm high
The next major series had 22 stamps in 1922-29, and had the CASA DA MOEDA in large letters (I measured 17 mm high) on the sheet. There was also a 1918 three stamp "Education"and a 1920 four stamp  "Education, Navigation"  issue with the wmk 100. Here, this illustration shows the letters (mostly) on the stamp, so not too much difficulty with identification. One should try to identify the letters, and make sure they fit with the watermark. Why? There is a similar sized letter watermark (17 mm high)- wmk 193 ESTADOS UNITOS DO BRASIL which may need to be ruled out - fortunately for just seven stamps.
A not uncommon scenario for wmk 100- only partial letters on stamp
But, not uncommonly, only partial letters are visible on a stamp for wmk 100. A little more dicey for identification- true. But, paradoxically, since wmk 100 is a sheet watermark that has this characteristic, it is actually helpful for identification. ;-) In other words, a partial large letter wmk (If wmk 193 is ruled out!) IS wmk 100!
Another  wmk 100 stamp
A couple more comments...
• Watermark 100 stamps do seem to be fairly common with a mixture of this series- so expect to find some. Although a nice full letter(s) on a stamp is desirable for the collection, partial identifiable letters are acceptable, as often, wmk 100 is the only logical choice. ;-)
• Note that the wmk can be found either aligned with the long axis or with the short axis of the stamp. It appears that the wmk 100 paper was not purposefully aligned with the stamp orientation.

Watermark 101- Stars and CASA DA MOEDA
Watermark 101- Stars and CASA DA MOEDA
The wmk 101 is found with the 13 stamp 1924-28 issue, and is not uncommon in a mixture. Wmk 101 is also found with a 1926 and 1929 Ruy Barbosa stamps.
The watermark has large prominent stars with smaller letters. The good news? Quite easy to identify, as there is no other watermark even close in design. ! (There are other watermarks with small stars.)

Watermark 193- ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRASIL, letters 17mm high
Note "BRA" and "DO"
Watermark 193- ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRASIL, letters 17mm high
There is another large 17mm letter wmk besides wmk 100: wmk 193. It is found on seven stamps issued in 1924. The 100r orange "Aviation" and the 200r rose "Aviation" are CV <$1, so relatively common. But the wmk 100 100r orange & 200r rose is also common: so these two watermarks will need to be differentiated. The 10r red violet "Railroad" , the 20r olive green "Railroad" , the 50r orange brown "Industry", and the 400r blue "Commerce-Mercury" wm 193 stamps are much less common than the wmk 100 variety. There is also a wmk 193 40r orange brown "Agriculture" that is not that common, but will need to be differentiated from the wmk 100 stamp.

Nevertheless, although not encountered as often in a mixture, the wmk 193 stamps pose an identification challenge, as they have essentially the same size letters as the wmk 100 stamps. How to tell?

• If the letters clearly identify part of ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRASIL, rather than CASA DA MOEDA, that would be diagnostic.
• One would think the letters should be more fully presented on wmk 193 stamps, as they are not from a sheet watermark  (wmk 100) with often smaller  parts of a letter showing. But, in my experience, wmk 193 is also found often partial on the stamp- see illustration.
• There are some differences in the shape of the letters (See Scott catalogue), but I am not experienced enough to use this marker reliably. Perhaps you are. ;-)

Bottom Line: The wmk 193 stamps are a diagnostic challenge. One needs to differentiate them from the wmk 100 stamps. Best bet is to identify letter sequences that can only be found with wmk 193, or, alternatively, with wmk 100.

Watermark 218- E U BRASIL, multiple, letters 8mm high
Watermark 218- E U BRASIL, multiple, letters 8mm high
Now we get into the six watermarks with repeating letters, and varying from 6mm, 7mm, and 8mm high. The wmk 218 "EUBRASIL", repeated, has letters 8 mm high.

This watermark is found for the 1929 issue on 10 stamps. It is fairly common, and will be found in mixtures. It is found usually as illustrated: that is with the letters in vertical alignment.
Wmk 218: Note "EUBRA" letters
This is where a little measuring tool comes in handy. Simply cut out some paper, and make a 6mm, 7mm, & 8mm measuring bar tool. Then determine the height of the letters- here 8mm.

Wmk 218 with echelon
Not in vertical orientation
There is, though, a curve ball that can be encountered with the wmk 218. It can also be found in echelon, with letters flowing. Scott gives the five stamps with this found characteristic- that is wmk 218 in echelon- minor numbers. Scott does not present an illustration for this wmk 218 variation, although Michel and Yvert do. The watermark 218 in echelon will have a similar letter size and appearance as the wmk 218 stamps, except not be vertically oriented.

Watermark 221 - ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRASIL, multiple, letters 6mm high 
Watermark 221 - ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRASIL, multiple, letters 6mm high 
The measuring tool measures 6 mm height  here, and "NIDO" and "BRAS" letters showing in vertical format. This is the wmk 221 found for the 1930 seven stamp issue. Despite the small number of stamps with this wmk, it can definitely come up in a mixture.

CORREIO BRASIL and 5 stars  in squared circle
Watermark 222- CORREIO BRASIL and 5 stars  in squared circle
This watermark- the 5 stars in a squared circle and CORREIO BRASIL- is one of the easiest to identify. The 1931-34 thirteen stamp issue is also found commonly in mixtures.
Wmk 222- CORREIO BRASIL and 5 stars in squared circle
Here are examples of the wmk 222 on the 1931-34 issue. Small stars, circles, squares, and script: nothing else like it.
Wmk 236- Coat of Arms in sheet
Twenty two stamps in a sheet have no watermark
Wmk 236- Coat of Arms in sheet
The wmk 236- Coat of Arms in sheet stamps should be a difficult to identify. Consider...
• Twenty two stamps of the sheet have no watermark
• The Coat of Arms watermark is large, and relatively difficult to identify with a one stamp sample.
• In my experience, the watermark is lightly impressed, and hard to discern

But it is easy. Why?

The paper!

The laid paper is stiff and thick, and one has the impression of cardboard. Therefore, the three stamps of the 1934-36 definitive issues (One will also find this paper and watermark on many of the commemoratives of the era), "Education" 2000r, 5000r, and 10,000r stamps, are easy to detect.

Note the Formee Cross, and 6mm letters
Wmk 245 - multiple "CASA DA MOEDA DO BRASIL" and small Formee cross, letters 6 mm+
Small letters (6mm-6mm+), and CASA DA MOEDA DO BRASIL with a Formee cross between words is characteristic of wmk 245. 
Note the Formee Cross
If one can identify the Formee cross, that watermark "mark" is diagnostic. The 1938 five stamp series is not terribly common, but is found. The 400r ultramarine "Commerce-Mercury" is one of the rarer examples @ CV $150.
"BRASIL", circle dot, "CO" identified here
 Watermark 249- "CORREIO BRASIL", multiple, letters 7 mm high 
The 1936-37 eleven stamp issue, and the 1938 three stamp issue are common, and this watermark will be found in  mixtures frequently.
"ORREIO", 7mm height
The letters are aligned vertically, and the "BRASIL" and "CORREIO" script is fairly easy to discern. Check the 7 mm height.
Note the small circle dot between "BRASIL" and "C"?
There is also a small circle dot between "Brasil" and "Correio". Look for it as it is diagnostic.

Look for the "+" letter, wmk in echelon, and 7+-8mm height
Watermark 256- "CASA+DA+MOEDA+DO+BRASIL" in 7+-8mm high letters
The last two watermarks presented here are in echelon, that is flowing (non vertically aligned) letters. The height for the wmk 256 is stated as 8mm, although it seems a bit less.  Wmk 256 is found on a 1939 eight stamp issue, and is quite common in mixtures.

The clear diagnostic sign is the "+" letter, found between every word. Look for it. ;-)

Note the echelon pattern, 7mm height, and the  star between words?
 Watermark 264- "(star)CORREIO(star)BRASIL(star), multiple, letters 7mm high
The last watermark for these stamps- wmk 264- is found on the 1941 eight stamp issue. The issue is reasonably common. 
If one looks carefully, one will see the "stars" 
-diagonally lower right to upper left
The "stars", in combination with the script and height should differentiate wmk 264 from wmk 256.

End of watermark section....

Section 2: A closer look at the stamps with possible watermarks listed
Stamp Index- ordered alphabetically by stamp image subject
Agriculture
Aviation
Ruy Barbosa
Commerce-Mercury
Education
Faith and Energy
Industry
Navigation
Railroad
& then Overprint Surcharges

Agriculture
"Agriculture" 40r orange brown
• 1922 Scott 258 40r orange brown "Unwatermarked", Perf 13 X 13 1/2
• 1923 Scott 263 40r orange brown "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high", Perf 13 1/2 X 12
•1924 Scott 267 40r orange brown "Watermark 193- ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRASIL, letters 17mm high", Perf 13 X 13 1/2
•1924-28 Scott 275 40r orange brown "Watermark 101- Stars and CASA DA MOEDA", Perf 9 1/2 to 13 1/2, and compound

Comment
• The "Agriculture" design was slightly late to the party. The unwatermarked 1920  issue and the wmk 100 1922  issue were first produced. Then the "Agriculture" stamp was first issued in 1922 and 1923.
• Note that if one excludes wmk 101 (Which is easily detected), and are debating between the large 17mm letter watermarks (wmk 100 vs wmk 193)- check the perforations, which are different!
• The 1924 wmk 193 is the least common of this grouping with a CV $2+.

"Agriculture" 80r greenish blue
• 1922 Scott 259 80r greenish blue, unwatermarked

Comment
• One of the few major color designs with only one example!
• Common

Aviation
"Aviation" 10r deep brown , red brown
• 1931-34 Scott 326 10r deep brown "Watermark 222- CORREIO BRASIL and 5 stars  in squared •ircle"
• 1936-37 Scott 431 10r deep brown "Watermark 249- "CORREIO BRASIL", multiple, letters 7 mm high"
• 1939 Scott 467 10r red brown "Watermark 256- "CASA+DA+MOEDA+DO+BRASIL" in 7+-8mm high letters"
• 1940-41 Scott 488 10r red brown " Watermark 264- "(star)CORREIO(star)BRASIL(star), multiple, letters 7mm high"

Comments
• Although the aviation design was introduced in 1920, this denomination was not used until 1931.
• All of these watermarks are distinctive, so little confusion should arise.
• The 1939 wmk 467 is slightly less common (CV $1)

"Aviation" 20r gray violet, dull violet
• 1929 ( In 1922-29 issue) Scott 238 20r gray violet "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"
• 1929 Scott 302 20r gray violet "Watermark 218- E U BRASIL, multiple, letters 8mm high"
• 1929 Scott 302a 20r gray violet "Watermark 218 variation (In Echelon) - E U BRASIL, multiple, letters 8mm high"
• 1930 Scott 316 20r gray violet "Watermark 221 - ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRASIL, multiple, letters 6mm high"
• 1931-34 Scott 327 20r gray violet "Watermark 222- CORREIO BRASIL and 5 stars  in squared circle"
• 1936-37 Scott 432 20r dull violet "Watermark 249- "CORREIO BRASIL", multiple, letters 7 mm high"
• 1939 Scott 468 20r dull violet "Watermark 256- "CASA+DA+MOEDA+DO+BRASIL" in 7+-8mm high letters"
• 1940-41 Scott 489 20r dull violet " Watermark 264- "(star)CORREIO(star)BRASIL(star), multiple, letters 7mm high"

Comments
• Eight watermarks to distinguish!
• All are common
• The 1929 302a is a wmk 218 variant,  whereby the watermark is in echelon (flowing), rather than vertically aligned.
• The early issues (1929-34) are in gray violet, while the later issues (1936-41) are in dull violet. Remember, though, colors can be unreliable as a determinate.

"Aviation" 50r red brown
• 1929 Scott 303 50r red brown "Watermark 218- E U BRASIL, multiple, letters 8mm high"
• 1929 Scott 303a 50r red brown "Watermark 218 variation (In Echelon) - E U BRASIL, multiple, letters 8mm high"
• 1930 Scott 317 50r red brown "Watermark 221 - ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRASIL, multiple, letters 6mm high"
• 1931 Scott 331 50r red brown "Watermark 222- CORREIO BRASIL and 5 stars  in squared circle"

 Comments
• The red brown color was replaced by blue green for 1931 and later issues.
• The 1929 302a is a wmk 218 variant,  whereby the watermark is in echelon (flowing), rather than vertically aligned. It has a high CV ($70+).

"Aviation" 50r blue green
• 1931 Scott 330 50r blue green "Watermark 222- CORREIO BRASIL and 5 stars  in squared circle"
• 1936 Scott 433  50r blue green "Watermark 249- "CORREIO BRASIL", multiple, letters 7 mm high"
• 1938 Scott 461 50r blue green "Watermark 245 - multiple "CASA DA MOEDA DO BRASIL" and small Formee cross, letters 6 mm+"
• 1939 Scott 469 50r blue green "Watermark 256- "CASA+DA+MOEDA+DO+BRASIL" in 7+-8mm high letters"
• 1941 Scott 489A 50r blue green " Watermark 264- "(star)CORREIO(star)BRASIL(star), multiple, letters 7mm high"

Comments
• This blue green color appeared in 1931, and replaced the red brown color from earlier issues.
• The 1938 Scott 461 wmk 245, the Formee cross watermark, is somewhat less common (CV $1+).

"Aviation" 100r rose red
• 1920 Scott 223 100r rose red "Unwatermarked"
• 1922 Scott 242 100r rose red "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"

Comment
• The early issues had the rose red color for the 100r.
• All common
"Aviation" 100r orange, red orange, yellow orange
• 1922 Scott 224 100r orange "Unwatermarked"
• 1926 Scott 243 100r orange "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"
• 1924 Scott 269 100r orange "Watermark 193- ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRASIL, letters 17mm high"
• 1924 Scott 277 100r red orange "Watermark 101- Stars and CASA DA MOEDA"
• 1931 Scott 332 100r orange "Watermark 222- CORREIO BRASIL and 5 stars  in squared circle"
• 1936 Scott 434 100r orange "Watermark 249- "CORREIO BRASIL", multiple, letters 7 mm high"
• 1938 Scott 462 100r orange "Watermark 245 - multiple "CASA DA MOEDA DO BRASIL" and small Formee cross, letters 6 mm+"
• 1939 Scott 470 100r yellow orange "Watermark 256- "CASA+DA+MOEDA+DO+BRASIL" in 7+-8mm high letters"
• 1940 Scott 490 100r yellow orange" Watermark 264- "(star)CORREIO(star)BRASIL(star), multiple, letters 7mm high"

Comments
• Nine watermarks! Good luck! ;-)
• All common, except 1938 Scott 462, Formee cross type, is CV $1+.
• The latter two issues are yellow orange.  Remember, though, colors can be unreliable as a determinate.

"Aviation" 100r turquoise green, turquoise blue
• 1928 Scott 244 100r turquoise green "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"
• 1929 Scott 304 100r turquoise green "Watermark 218- E U BRASIL, multiple, letters 8mm high"
• 1930 Scott 318 100r turquoise blue "Watermark 221 - ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRASIL, multiple, letters 6mm high"

Comments
• Watermarks should not be an identification problem, as each is distinctive.
• All common
• The 1930 Scott 318 wmk 221 is turquoise blue. Remember, though, colors can be unreliable as a determinate.
"Aviation" 150r violet
• 1921 Scott 225 150r violet "Unwatermarked"
• 1922 Scott 245 150r violet "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"

Comments
•The 150r denomination is only found for the two earlier issues
• All common
"Aviation" 200r blue
• 1920 Scott 226 200r blue "Unwatermarked"
• 1922 Scott 246 200r violet "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"

Comments
• The two earlier issues had a blue 200r
• The 1922 Scott 246 wmk 100 has a CV $15!

"Aviation" 200r rose red, rose, deep carmine
•1922 Scott 227 200r rose red "Unwatermarked"
•1922 Scott 247 200r rose red "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"
•1924 Scott 270 200r rose "Watermark 193- ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRASIL, letters 17mm high"
•1924 Scott 278 100r rose "Watermark 101- Stars and CASA DA MOEDA"
•1931 Scott 334 200r deep carmine "Watermark 222- CORREIO BRASIL and 5 stars  in squared circle"

Comments
• The 1922 Scott 247 wmk 100 and the 1924 Scott 270 wmk 193, both large 17mm letter wmks, will need to be distinguished from each other.
• Some spreadsheets separate out this issue by the three major colors. Look and see if your stamps match the colors, but don't be surprised if they don't. ;-)
• All common
"Aviation" 200r olive green
•1928 Scott 248 200r olive green "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"
•1929 Scott 305 200r olive green "Watermark 218 - E U BRASIL, multiple, letters 8mm high"
•1930 Scott 319 200r olive green "Watermark 221 - ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRASIL, multiple, letters 6mm high"

Comments
• The middle years- 1928-30- of the issue found a 200r with the olive green color
• The watermarks should not be confusing
• The 1929 Scott 305 wmk 218 is CV $5

Ruy Barbosa
"Ruy Barbosa" 1000r claret
•1925 Scott 286 1000r claret "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"
•1926 Scott 287 1000r claret "Watermark 101- Stars and CASA DA MOEDA"

Comments
• Who was Rui Barbosa (1849-1923)? Politician, writer, diplomat- a defender of civil liberties, and an opponent of slavery, he ran (unsuccessfully) for president in 1910 & in 1919.
• Scott does not list these stamps with the other major issue releases, but they are considered part of the series.
• The 1925 Scott 286 wmk 100 is CV $1+.

"Ruy Barbosa" 5000r blue violet, violet blue, deep blue
•1929 Scott 300 5000r blue violet "Watermark 101- Stars and CASA DA MOEDA"
•1936 Scott 405 5000r blue violet "Watermark 236- Coat of Arms in sheet"
•1938 Scott 459 5000r violet blue "Watermark 249- "CORREIO BRASIL", multiple, letters 7 mm high"
•1938 Scott 459a 5000r deep blue "Watermark 249- "CORREIO BRASIL", multiple, letters 7 mm high"

Comments
• Remember the wmk 236 has no watermark on 22 stamps/sheet, but is on very thick laid paper, which is diagnostic.
• I am including the minor number 1938 Scott 459a 5000r deep blue color as a choice, as the Deep Blue (Steiner) album gives a space for this stamp.
• CV is $1+ for the 1936 Scott 405 wmk 236 stamp

Commerce-Mercury
"Commerce-Mercury" 300r olive gray, olive green
•1920 Scott 228 300r olive gray "Unwatermarked"
•1922 Scott 249 300r olive gray "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"
•1925 Scott 279 300r olive gray "Watermark 101- Stars and CASA DA MOEDA"
•1931 Scott 335 300r olive green "Watermark 222- CORREIO BRASIL and 5 stars  in squared circle"
•1936 Scott 436 300r olive green "Watermark 249- "CORREIO BRASIL", multiple, letters 7 mm high"
•1938 Scott 463 300r olive green "Watermark 245 - multiple "CASA DA MOEDA DO BRASIL" and small Formee cross, letters 6 mm+"

Comments
• Scott labels the design as "Mercury", but the design represents "Commerce".
• The watermarks are challenging, but no true dilemmas.
• One might be able to separate the olive gray from the olive green shade. (But double check the watermarks! ;-)
• The 1925 Scott 279 wmk 101 & 1938 Scott 463 wmk 245 are CV $1+

"Commerce-Mercury" 300r rose red
•1929 Scott 250 300r rose red "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"
•1929 Scott 306 300r rose red "Watermark 218 - E U BRASIL, multiple, letters 8mm high"
•1929 Scott 306a 300r rose red "Watermark 218 variation in echelon - E U BRASIL, multiple, letters 8mm high"
•1930 Scott 320 300r rose red "Watermark 221 - ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRASIL, multiple, letters 6mm high"

Comments
• Be on the lookout for the Scott 306a wmk 218 in echelon
• All common, except Scott 306a wmk 218 is CV $1+.

"Commerce-Mercury" 400r dull blue, blue, ultramarine
•1922 Scott 229 400r dull blue "Unwatermarked"
•1922 Scott 251 400r blue "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"
•1924 Scott 271 400r blue "Watermark 193- ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRASIL, letters 17mm high"
•1924 Scott 280 400r blue "Watermark 101- Stars and CASA DA MOEDA"
•1931 Scott 336 400r ultramarine "Watermark 222- CORREIO BRASIL and 5 stars  in squared circle"
•1936 Scott 437 400r ultramarine"Watermark 249- "CORREIO BRASIL", multiple, letters 7 mm high"
•1938 Scott 463A 400r ultramarine "Watermark 245 - multiple "CASA DA MOEDA DO BRASIL" and small Formee cross, letters 6 mm+"
•1939 Scott 472 400r ulramarine "Watermark 256- "CASA+DA+MOEDA+DO+BRASIL" in 7+-8mm high letters"
•1940 Scott 492 400r ultramarine" Watermark 264- "(star)CORREIO(star)BRASIL(star), multiple, letters 7mm high"

Comments
• Four "blues" and five "ultramarines"! They might be able to separated based on color, but check watermarks.
• 1922 Scott 229 unwmk and 1924 Scott 271 wmk 193 are CV $4+. The 1938 Scott 463A with wmk 245 is CV $150!
"Commerce-Mercury" 400r orange
•1929 Scott 252 400r orange "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"
•1929 Scott 307 400r orange "Watermark 218 - E U BRASIL, multiple, letters 8mm high"

Comments
• CV is $1+ for these stamps
"Commerce-Mercury" 500r red brown, light brown
•1920 Scott 230 500r red brown "Unwatermarked"
•1922 Scott 253 500r red brown "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"
•1924 Scott 281 500r red brown "Watermark 101- Stars and CASA DA MOEDA"
•1931 Scott 337 500r red brown "Watermark 222- CORREIO BRASIL and 5 stars  in squared circle"
•1936 Scott 438 500r light brown"Watermark 249- "CORREIO BRASIL", multiple, letters 7 mm high"
•1938 Scott 463B 500r red brown "Watermark 245 - multiple "CASA DA MOEDA DO BRASIL" and small Formee cross, letters 6 mm+"

Comments
• Watermarks a challenge, but no large problems.
• All are common, except 1938 Scott 463B @ CV $1+.

"Commerce-Mercury" 500r ultramarine
•1929 Scott 254 500r ultramarine "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"
•1929 Scott 308 500r ultramarine "Watermark 218 - E U BRASIL, multiple, letters 8mm high"
•1929 Scott 308a 500r ultramarine "Watermark 218 variation in echelon - E U BRASIL, multiple, letters 8mm high"
•1930 Scott 321 500r ultramarine "Watermark 221 - ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRASIL, multiple, letters 6mm high"

Comments
• The Scott 308a is the wmk 218 variation in echelon with CV $40+.

"Commerce-Mercury" 600r brown orange, dull orange
•1929 Scott 255 600r brown orange "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"
•1929 Scott 309 600r brown orange "Watermark 218 - E U BRASIL, multiple, letters 8mm high"*1931
•1931 Scott 338 600r brown orange "Watermark 222- CORREIO BRASIL and 5 stars  in squared circle"
•1937 Scott 439 600r brown orange "Watermark 249- "CORREIO BRASIL", multiple, letters 7 mm high"
•1939 Scott 473 600r dull orange "Watermark 256- "CASA+DA+MOEDA+DO+BRASIL" in 7+-8mm high letters"
•1940 Scott 493 600r dull orange "Watermark 264- "(star)CORREIO(star)BRASIL(star), multiple, letters 7mm high"

Comments
• Watermarks challenging, but do-able.
• Scott 309 wmk 218 is CV $1+
• "brown orange" and "dull orange" colors are reported for the issues. Remember, though, colors can be unreliable as a determinate.
"Commerce-Mercury" 700r dull violet, deep violet
•1929 Scott 256 700r dull violet "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"
•1929 Scott 310 700r deep violet "Watermark 218 - E U BRASIL, multiple, letters 8mm high"
•1931 Scott 339 700r deep violet "Watermark 222- CORREIO BRASIL and 5 stars  in squared circle"
•1936 Scott 440 700r deep violet "Watermark 249- "CORREIO BRASIL", multiple, letters 7 mm high"

Comments
• Watermarks should not be a problem
• Scott 256 wmk 100 @ CV $2+

"Commerce-Mercury" 1000r turquoise blue
•1929 Scott 257 1000r turquoise blue "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"
•1929 Scott 311 1000r turquoise blue "Watermark 218 - E U BRASIL, multiple, letters 8mm high"
•1929 Scott 311a 1000r turquoise blue "Watermark 218 variation in echelon - E U BRASIL, multiple, letters 8mm high"
•1930 Scott 322 1000r turquoise blue "Watermark 221 - ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRASIL, multiple, letters 6mm high"
•1931 Scott 340 1000r turquoise blue "Watermark 222- CORREIO BRASIL and 5 stars  in squared circle"
•1936 Scott 441 1000r turquoise blue "Watermark 249- "CORREIO BRASIL", multiple, letters 7 mm high"
•1939 Scott 474 1000rturquoise blue  "Watermark 256- "CASA+DA+MOEDA+DO+BRASIL" in 7+-8mm high letters"
•1940 Scott 494 1000r turquoise blue "Watermark 264- "(star)CORREIO(star)BRASIL(star), multiple, letters 7mm high"

Comments
• A challenge with eight watermarks, including wmk 218 in echelon.
• Scott 257 wmk 100 & Scott 332 wmk 221 @ $1, and Scott 311a wmk 218 variation in echelon @ $10.

Education
"Education"  1000r blue
•1918 Scott 215 1000r blue "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"

Comment
• The 1918 "Education" three stamp issue is considered the first of the series that continued until 1941. The "Education" stamps are all engraved.
• Only one stamp in this group! Remember, that wmk 100, a sheet watermark, may not always show a watermark. But a moot point, as this is the only 1000r "Education" stamp issued.

"Education" 2000r red brown
•1918 Scott 216 2000r red brown "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"

Comments
• The only red brown colored 2000r "Education" stamp. There should be enough color difference to separate the 2000r "violet" color.
• CV is $10.
"Education" 2000r dull violet, violet, blue violet
•1920 Scott 233 2000r dull violet "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"
•1926 Scott 283 2000r dull violet "Watermark 101- Stars and CASA DA MOEDA"
•1934 Scott 404 2000r violet "Watermark 236- Coat of Arms in sheet"
•1938 Scott 458 2000r blue violet "Watermark 249- "CORREIO BRASIL", multiple, letters 7 mm high"

Comment
• Recall that, although the wmk 236 stamps may have no watermark, the paper is a thick laid, and quite characteristic.
• There are different shades of violet noted by Scott, but watermarking is the only sure thing!

"Education" 5000r dark violet
•1918 Scott 217 5000r dark violet "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"

Comments
• The 5000r dark violet is singular!
• CV is $10.
"Education" 5000r brown
•1920 Scott 234 5000r brown "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"
•1926 Scott 284 5000r  brown "Watermark 101- Stars and CASA DA MOEDA"

Comments
• Scott 234 wmk 100 is CV $10+
"Education" 10000r rose, claret, rose lake
•1928 Scott 285 10000r rose, "s" script, "Watermark 101- Stars and CASA DA MOEDA"
•1936 Scott 406 10000r claret , "z" script,"Watermark 236- Coat of Arms in sheet"
•1938 Scott 460 10000r rose lake, "z" script, "Watermark 249- "CORREIO BRASIL", multiple, letters 7 mm high"

Comments
• I haven't mentioned this before, as the design differences were not need for identification purposes, but there are two kinds of inscribed brazil/brasil on the "Education" stamps. Scott 215-217, 406,417 have the "z", while Scott 233-234, 283-285,404 & 458 have the "s". Here, for the 10000 rose/claret/rose lake grouping, it may help for identification, and therefore I list the script here.
• Recall that, although the wmk 236 stamps may have no watermark, the paper is a thick laid, and quite characteristic.
• Scott 285 wmk 101, Scott 406 wmk 236, & Scott 460 wmk 249  is CV $1+-$2.

Faith and Energy
"Faith & Energy" 200r dark red
•1933 Scott 384 200r dark red "Watermark 222- CORREIO BRASIL and 5 stars  in squared circle"

Comment
• In 1933, this interesting design was added to the series. The dark red 200r denomination was singular, so no confusion here.
"Faith & Energy" 200r dark violet, violet
•1933 Scott 385 200r dark violet "Watermark 222- CORREIO BRASIL and 5 stars  in squared circle"
•1936 Scott 435 200r dark violet "Watermark 249- "CORREIO BRASIL", multiple, letters 7 mm high"
•1939 Scott 471 200r dark violet  "Watermark 256- "CASA+DA+MOEDA+DO+BRASIL" in 7+-8mm high letters"
•1940 Scott 491 200r violet "Watermark 264- "(star)CORREIO(star)BRASIL(star), multiple, letters 7mm high"

Comments
• There should be little confusion with watermarks
• All common

Industry
"Industry" 25r brown violet
•1920 Scott 220 25r brown violet "Unwatermarked"
•1922 Scott 239 25r brown violet "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"
•1934 Scott 328 25r brown violet "Watermark 222- CORREIO BRASIL and 5 stars  in squared circle"

Comments
• The "Industry" design was used initially for the series, and then was dropped, except for a later 1934 wmk 222 specimen.
• The watermarks here should pose little problem, except perhaps the unwmk vs wmk 100 question.
• All common
"Industry" 50r blue green
•1920 Scott 221 50r blue green"Unwatermarked"
•1922 Scott 240 50r blue green"Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"

Comments
• The 1922 Scott 240 wmk 100 is CV $4+ unused.

"Industry" 50r orange brown
•1922 Scott 222 50r orange brown"Unwatermarked"
•1923 Scott 241 50r orange brown"Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"
•1924 Scott 268 50r orange brown"Watermark 193- ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRASIL, letters 17mm high"
•1924 Scott 276 50r orange brown "Watermark 101- Stars and CASA DA MOEDA"

Comments
• The denomination color was changed from blue green to orange brown during 1922.
• The watermarks "unwmk vs wmk 100" & "wmk 100 vs wmk 193" could be challenges.
• 1924 Scott 268 wmk 193 is CV $10.

Navigation
"Navigation" 600r  red orange
•1920 Scott 231 600r red orange"Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"
•1926 Scott 282 600r red orange "Watermark 101- Stars and CASA DA MOEDA"

Comments
• The navigation stamps are engraved- Lovely!
• All common
"Navigation" 1000r claret
•1920 Scott 232 1000r claret "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"

Comments
• Only one example of this denomination
• Common, but nice!

Railroad
"Railroad" 10r red violet
•1920 Scott 218 10r red violet "Unwatermarked"
•1922 Scott 236 10r red violet "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"
•1924 Scott 265 10r red violet "Watermark 193- ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRASIL, letters 17mm high"
•1924 Scott 273 10r red violet "Watermark 101- Stars and CASA DA MOEDA"

Comments
• This is the design that got me hooked on the series! ;-)
• The colors for this stamp vary from red violet, violet, and dark violet in my collection.
• The wmk 100 vs wmk 193 can be a challenge.
• 1924 Scott 265 wmk 193 CV $7+

"Railroad" 20r olive green, olive gray
•1920 Scott 219 20r olive green "Unwatermarked"
•1922 Scott 237 20r olive green "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"
•1924 Scott 266 20r olive green "Watermark 193- ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRASIL, letters 17mm high"
•1924 Scott 274 20r olive gray "Watermark 101- Stars and CASA DA MOEDA"

Comments
• The colors seem to be darker, almost black, on some stamps in my collection.
• The wmk 100 vs wmk 193 can be a challenge.
• 1924 Scott 266 wmk 193 CV $7+

Overprint Surcharges
"Overprint Surcharges" 200r on 300r rose red
"1931" overprint & shorter, thicker surcharge
•1931 Scott 356 200r on 300r rose red  "Watermark 218 - E U BRASIL, multiple, letters 8mm high"
•1931 Scott 356a 200r on 300r rose red "Watermark 218 variation in echelon - E U BRASIL, multiple, letters 8mm high"
•1931 Scott 357 200r on 300r rose red  "Watermark 221 - ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRASIL, multiple, letters 6mm high"
•1931 Scott 258 200r on 300r rose red  "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"

Comments
• Some rare watermark types with high CV for this overprint/surcharge!
•CV is $1+ (Scott 356 wmk 218), $30 (Scott 356a wmk 218 in echelon), $90+! (Scott 358 wmk 100).

"Overprint Surcharges" 200r on 300r rose red
Taller, thinner surcharge
•1933 Scott 376 200r on 300r rose red  "Watermark 218 - E U BRASIL, multiple, letters 8mm high"
•1931 Scott 376a 200r on 300r rose red "Watermark 218 variation in echelon - E U BRASIL, multiple, letters 8mm high"
•1931 Scott 377 200r on 300r rose red  "Watermark 221 - ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRASIL, multiple, letters 6mm high"
•1931 Scott 276b 200r on 300r rose red  "Watermark 100- "CASA DA MOEDA" in Sheet, letters 17 mm high"

Comments
• Some uncommon watermark types with high CV for this overprint.
• Scott 376a wmk 218 in echelon CV $10+; Scott 276b wmk 100 CV $140!

Air Post 1932 "Zeppelin"
Regular issues of 1928-29 surcharged
• 1932 Scott C29 3500r on 5000r gray lilac "Ruy Barbosa" "Watermark 101- Stars and CASA DA MOEDA"
• 1932 Scott C30 7000r on 10000r rose "Education"  "Watermark 101- Stars and CASA DA MOEDA"

Comments
• Part of the Air Post "Zeppelin" overprinted/surcharged stamps for Brazil, C29 & C30 only are found with wmk 101.
• CV $20+ for the stamps.

End
1918 Scott 215 1000r blue "Education"
Out of the Blue
I feel a lot more comfortable with the 1918-41 definitive issues after evaluating the watermarks and constructing this blog post. I hope you will find it useful too.

Comments?

17 comments:

  1. Wow. I really like these in-depth analyses.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Thanks Bob

    It has made the job of watermarking the Brazil definitives a lot less painful for me. ;-)

    ReplyDelete
  3. Nice to see you've put my Excel sheet + tip on measuring watermark heights into good usage ;)

    Definitely a nice review of topic, and I love the 'real world' illustrations of watermarks.

    -k-

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Keijo- you were one of my inspirations to get this done. Hope you saw the acknowledgement in the blog post. ;-)

      I like the wmk pics, as they present the actual look of the wmk on the stamp.

      Delete
  4. Hello Jim,

    I collect ww 1850 to 1920 and I love your blog! So much background information, it's great. I can't wait until you post Switzerland, my home country.

    Greetings from Zurich, Roberto

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Roberto

      Switzerland is one of my favorite countries- so yes, I will make it special!

      BTW, I've been twice to Zurich- great city!

      Delete
  5. Great job! This series is really hard to identify. I do not collect Brazilian classic stamp, but when it gives some work and not everyone has the watermark visible.
    Congratulations from Brazil!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks Joao - Nice to hear from Brazil!

      Delete
  6. I recall our exchange following your first discussion of Brazil's Série vovó. Your caution about the frequency of misidentification, even when watermarks are supposedly checked, motivates me to recheck mine. Which I'll do on the first snowy day this winter. No doubt I'll find some errors.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Bud- I doubt if you have many errors. ;-)

    But the watermarks are nice to check at times, just to stay in practice. :-)

    ReplyDelete
  8. I have a 1918 2000r education Brazil stamp, but with the perfs. 11x12.
    I have over 200 of these stamps, and I never seen a 2000r stamp with
    these perfs. In the Scott book it is listed as perf. 11 1/2. My question is have you?

    ReplyDelete
  9. No, but I was paying more attention to the watermarks rather than the perfs.

    ;-)

    Perhaps another catalogue (Brazilian?) would list?

    ReplyDelete
  10. @Jim & Anonymous... Nothing about perf 11x12 on Michel or the Brazilian RHM either.

    -k-

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks for the information Keijo.

      Hope your health is recovering.

      Delete
    2. Getting better, but still get tired very easily.

      Delete
  11. Thank You for posting this information. Sorting the water marks out with the Scott Catalog was becoming a task.

    ReplyDelete
  12. No kidding. :-)

    I put this together to help figure the watermarks out better for myself also.

    Thanks for the comment jtfat.

    ReplyDelete