A is for Aden and Z is for Zanzabar


A is for Aden and Z is for Zanzibar... Now what is between? For the world wide classical era philatelist and stamp collector, a country specific philatelic survey is offered by the blog author, Jim Jackson, with two albums: Big Blue, aka Scott International Part 1 (checklists available), and Deep Blue, aka William Steiner's Stamp Album Web PDF pages. Interested? So into the Blues...

Sunday, September 30, 2012

Heligoland

1888 Scott 21 20pf vermilion & bright green  
"Coat of Arms"
Quick History
Denmark ceded Heligoland to the British in 1814, a half square mile island located 29 miles off the German coast on the North Sea. Although "British", in reality, Heligoland became a favorite seaside spa for wealthy Germans.

The reality is reflected in the first 1867 British stamp issue (actually printed by the Berlin Prussian State Printing Office, as where all subsequent issues), which has a portrait of Queen Victoria, but is denominated in Hamburg schillings. After 1875, the stamps had dual Pfennig & Farthing/Pence denominations.

Then in 1890, the island was traded to Germany in order for the British to be able to tighten their grip on Zanzibar without German interference, much like one would exchange real estate on a Monopoly board game. (The sultanate of Zanzibar had little to say on the matter.)

British stamp production ceased, and henceforth Helgoland (German), population 2,330 (1900), was part of the German Empire.
Heligoland circa 1890
Into the Deep Blue
When the classical stamp collector turns his or her attention to Heligoland, one word is paramount.

Reprints.

Consider this...

The original twenty six major Scott number description stamps issued between 1867-1890 had a production total of ~ 1 1/2 million.

The reprints, produced between 1875-1895, had an estimated volume of  7 million.

Then to complicate matters, the originals had up to eight separate printings, while Berlin, Hamburg, and Leipzig were the source of different reprints. 

And the Berlin reprints are often of fresher appearance than the originals.

Since "used" stamps often have a higher CV, forged cancellations are abundant.

The good news is there is a source where comparative study can be done.

http://www.fritzwagner.com/helgoland/robert_pollard_heligoland.html

The 2011Scott Classic Specialized catalogue has, from 1867-1888, twenty-six major stamp descriptions, with many more minor color descriptions. Seven stamps have a mint CV of $10+, with three more with a CV of $20-$30+.

The classical collector could send his or her Heligoland stamps to be certified by experts. But seeking expert opinion of the ten modestly expensive stamps listed above would not be cost effective for most collectors.

So, one is left with doing one's own research, or assume the specimens in the collection are reprints valued @ $1-$2.  ;-)

A closer look at the stamps and issues
1873 Scott 8 1/4 sch yellow green & rose, perforation 14
I don't have an extensive collection of Heligoland as one would expect from a collector of modest means. ;-)

But let us see what we can say about the stamps I have.

The 1873 issue (six stamps) are found on thick quadrilled paper. Reprints are not. The Scott 8 above is not on quadrilled paper: therefore a reprint. Once more, the 1/4 Schilling is usually found with a pale rose frame and a pale green Queen Victoria cameo background (Scott 7 CV $30+). Illustrated here is the 'error" Scott 8 with the reverse colors (CV $100+): Fat chance this is an original. ;-) 

One thing to note is the shape of the hair protuberance above the neck nape. There are three types, and this type is a corkscrew curl (Type 2). If one would like to separate the originals from the various reprints, the "Hair Protuberance" type is important.

Reviewing Pollard Chart 8 (found at the web site linked above), the above Scott 8 stamp (Type 2, perforation 14) is a 3rd Hamburg Reprint, March 21, 1895.

Well, that was kind of fun. ;-)

1875 Scott 14 1pf dark rose & dark green 
Perf 13 1/2 X 14 1/4
1875 saw a six stamp issue doubly denominated as above. 

The 1 Pfennig stamp illustrated is Perf 13 1/2 X 14 1/4. This eliminates the Hamburg reprints, as they are Perf 14, according to Pollard chart 13.

Does the stamp have large holes or small holes? I'm electing  large holes, which eliminates the Leipzig reprint.
( I might be wrong, as I have "nothing" to compare.)

The stamp is than either an original or one of two Berlin reprints.

Although the scan does not show as well, the stamp has a dark green color to the cameo. The Berlin reprint is "lighter and brighter". Therefore this could be an original (CV $10+).  ;-)

1875 Scott 14 -two copies
Note the lighter green color of the right stamp? (Reprint)
I have another copy of the 1875 1 Pfennig, which is also perforation 13 1/2 X 14 1/4 (right stamp). It has, however, a lighter green color to the cameo. This probably is one of the Berlin reprints.


1875 Scott 15 2pf yellow green & dark rose
Perf 13 1/2 X 14 1/4
Scott mentions that the 2pf (as well as the 1 pf) of the 1875 issue was often reprinted on very white paper. The description appears to fit here. 

Reviewing Pollard Chart 14...

The Hamburg reprints are perf 14, and the Leipzig reprints have small holes; neither apply here.

The original has dark green/ dark lilac carmine color. The Berlin reprints have dull green and light carmine red color.

This appears to be a Berlin reprint. 

BTW, an examination under ultraviolet light is recommended by Pollard to help differentiate the originals from the Berlin reprints.

1888 Scott 21 20pf vermilion $ bright green
"Coat of Arms"
Between 1876-88, two stamps with 3pf and 20pf denominations and "Coat of Arms" motif were issued.

The good news is there were no reprints of the 20 pfennig stamp.

If one wants to be sticky though, there are eight "original" printings of the stamp. ;-)  Consult Pollard chart 19, if interested, but the comparison is much easier with multiple examples.

The "Heligoland" cancellation on the stamp might very well have been "applied", as used copies are worth twice as much as mint (CV $30 vs $15).

Deep Blue
Deep Blue (Steiner), on two pages, has 40 spaces for the 26 major Scott varieties, as well as 14 spaces for minor number color varieties. For instance with the 1888 Scott 21 illustrated above, there are six spaces, reflecting the different color shades found with various printings.

Heligoland found in '41/'47; not in '69/'97 editions.
Big Blue
Unfortunately, Heligoland is one of the "lost" countries now in Big Blue. The '69 editors eliminated the Heligoland/Hanover/Hamburg coverage page.

But let's take a look at what was offered for Heligoland in the '47/'41 editions....

What was "41/"47 Big Blue thinking?.......   ;-)

Illustrated in the last cut is the 1875-76 Scott 20 (or 20a) 3 pfennig "Coat of Arms". CV is $250 for the Scott 20 or $175 for the Scott 20a. The much less expensive 1888 20pf  "Coat of Arms", placed above the cut in the photo, is CV $14+. ! Yet there is no space for the 1888 20pf. Note BB's dates only go to 1879, but a date expansion and a cut substitute to the 20pf would have solved this 'expensive" problem.

The other six spaces, including two blank spaces, offer a nice selection of CV $10+ Heligoland stamps.
Coverage by BB is 27%.

Actually, the prices for these classical stamps (except for Scott 20/20a) are quite reasonable. I suspect the abundant reprints ($1-2) have dragged down the CV of genuine Heligoland.


Checklist ('47 edition)
1867-74
3,(4),(13),

1875-79
14,15,17, 20a or 20

Comments
A) Expensive stamps ($10 threshold):
1867-68  Scott 3 2sch rose & pale green ($10+)
1867-68 (Scott 4) 6sch gray green & rose ($10+)
1874 (Scott 13) 1/4sch rose & yellow green ($10+)
1875 Scott 14 1pf dark rose & dark green ($10+)
1875 Scott 15 2pf yellow green & dark rose ($10+)
1875 Scott 17 10pf blue green & red ($10+)
1877 Scott 20a 3pf green & bright red  ($175) !

B) (  ) around a number indicates a blank space elective choice

C) Reprints are common and are $1-2 in value.


1875 Scott 14 1pf dark rose 7 dark green
Note lighter green in cameo, and the white paper? Probable Berlin reprint
Out of the Blue
I was pleasantly surprised that, at least roughly sorting out the originals and reprints, was not difficult with the on-line Robert Pollard charts.

Heligoland stamps, with the "British" queen portrait and the "German" printing, are fascinating designs. Big Blue should not have eliminated coverage of Heligoland in the '69 edition.

Although BB would not need to bring back the Scott 20/20a "Coat of Arms" $250/$175 stamp. ;-)

Note: Heligoland picture appears to be in the public domain.

Comments appreciated!

Monday, September 24, 2012

Hejaz & Saudi Arabia

Kingdom of the Hejaz 1922 Scott L27 1/2 Piaster red 
Taken from Page of Quran in Mosque of El Sultan Barquq, Cairo
Stamps of 1916 "Sherifate of Mecca" overprinted in black
Quick History
al-Hejaz (Hijaz) is part of present day western Saudi Arabia. Bordering on the Red Sea, Hejaz incorporates the Islamic holy cities of Mecca and Medina, as well as the main city of Jeddah. The Hejaz Railway, finished in 1906, had a line running between Medina and Damascus.

The Grand Sherif of Mecca declared the Sanjak of Hejaz independent of the Ottoman Empire in 1916, and he became King of Hejaz. The Capital was Mecca, and the population was approximately 1,500,000.


1916-23 Kingdom of Hejaz (green); Saudi region in red
Stamp issues began in 1916 from the Sherifate of Mecca, and continued in 1921 under the Kingdom of Hejaz. 

The Kingdom was annexed by Ibn Saud, the Sultan of the Nejd in 1925, after a siege of Jeddah.  Nejdi administration of Hejaz stamps were issued in 1925.


Nejd in violet blue, Kingdom of Hejaz in light green bordering the Red Sea
The Kingdom of Nejd and Hejaz was declared in 1926 as an absolute monarchy led by the House of Saud. Stamps were than issued under the Kingdom of Hejaz-Nejd.

The Kingdom was renamed Saudi Arabia in 1932, and the first stamp issue was in 1934.

Saudi Arabia after 1932
Saudi Arabia covers most of the Arabian Peninsula. The Capital is Riyadh, and the population was approximately 3,000,000 in 1950. The official language naturally is Arabic, and the government is an Islamic absolute monarchy. The Quran is the official constitution of the country.

Oil accounts for 95% of exports, and 70% of government revenues. The GDP is $25,000 Per capita.


The Nejd landscape and desert near Riyadh
Into the Deep Blue
Of interest, even the 1947 Scott catalogue maintained separate Hejaz and Nejd sections, because of the dual character of the Kingdoms. The '41/'47 Big Blues also have dual entries for Hejaz and Nejd. By 1969, Big Blue had shrunk the Hejaz section from one page to two lines (more about that later), and renamed the Nejd section "Saudi Arabia".

The 2011 Scott Classic Specialized catalogue has all the iterations of the Kingdoms under "Saudi Arabia", and so this blog will cover the stamps issues beginning in 1916.

The 2011 Scott Classic has, for regular, postage due, official, newspaper, and postal tax stamps, the following:
A) Hejaz ( Has "L" prefix for numbers): 242 major descriptions (1916-1925).
B) Neiji Administration of Hejaz (1925), Kingdom of Hejaz-Nejd (1926-32), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Beginning in 1934): 211 major descriptions.
Total: 453 major stamp descriptions.

Saudi Arabian stamps are generally rather expensive. For a CV of $2 or less, I found 57 stamps (13%).
So unless one wishes to emphasize these admittedly fascinatingly stamps, a modest representative collection is all one can probably afford.

The second concern for the WW classical generalist is simply understanding enough Arabic number script to decipher the denomination.

So here is a small primer. ;-)

40 Paras= 1 Piaster= 1 Guerche
11 Guerche= 1 Riyal (1928)
110 Guerche= 1 Soverign (1931)

1922 "Arms of Sherif of Mecca"
Reading left to right, top to bottom, the Arabic denomination script (in the corners of the stamp) are (in Piasters):

1/8, 1/2, 1, 1 1/2,

2, 3, 5,

(Western) number script is not found on stamps until 1930.


A closer look at the stamps and issues


1916-17 Scott L5 1/2pi green Roulette 20
"Adapted from the Carved Door Panels of
Mosque El Salih Talay, Cairo"
The first four stamp designs for the Hejaz Sherifate of Mecca where taken from the Quran, or from Mosques. 

The origin of these stamps is interesting indeed, and none other than T E Lawrence "Lawrence of Arabia" is involved.

Lawrence was a junior intelligence officer at British Military Headquarters in Cairo at the time.

After the Arab revolution, its success was being denied by much of the world's press. Lawrence thought what greater proof of the change than an issue of Hejaz postage stamps, which would be sent to all corners of the world? But not just any stamps, but some that would reflect the Arab world.

In the words of Sir Ronald Storrs, Oriental Secretary of the Arab Bureau who accompanied Lawrence to the Cairo Arab Museum: "Lawrence wandered around the Arab Museum in Cairo collecting suitable motifs in order that the design in wording, spirit and ornament, might be as far as possible representative and reminiscent of a purely Arab source of inspiration."

1917 Scott L13 2pi magenta Serrate Roulette 13
"Adapted from the First Page of the
Quran of Sultan Farag"
Of the thirteen stamps issued 1916-17 by the Sherifate of Mecca, nine of them are only CV $1+. Note the Arabic number "2" on either side of the central design.

Kingdom of the Hejaz 1922 Scott L28 1pi blue 
Overprint reads "Government of the Land of the Prophet 1340"
"Taken from Details of an Ancient Prayer Niche in the 
Mosque of El Amri at Qus in Upper Egypt"
The first sixteen stamps issued by the Kingdom of Hejaz from 1921-22 were from the 1916-18 issues of the Sherifate of Mecca. We get to enjoy some more the T E Lawrence chosen motifs, this time with overprints.

1922 Scott L31 1pi on 1pa lilac brown with additional overprint
"Adapted from Stucco Work above 
Entrance to Cairo R.R. Station"
Of the sixteen stamps issued by the Kingdom of Hejaz from 1921-22, five are CV <$1-$2+. These stamp designs are as classic for the Arab Islamic world as the Greek Hermes Heads or French Ceres stamps.

1922 Scott L36 1 1/2pi violet "Arms of the Sherif of Mecca"
1922 saw the first non overprinted issue proper for the Kingdom of Hejaz. This seven stamp issue (the entire set is pictured elsewhere on the blog) is quite inexpensive, all for <$1.

1924 Scott L44 1pi dark blue
Overprint reads "In commemoration of the
Caliphate, Shaaban, 1342"
The black overprint was dusted with gold when wet. This seven stamp overprinted set was issued on the Assumption of the Caliphate by King Hussein in March, 1924. CV for stamps in the set are $4-$7.

1924 Scott L50 10pi violet & dark brown
Type of 1922 "Arms of Sherif of Mecca"
Two stamps were issued in 1924 similar to the 1922 "Arms of Sherif of Mecca" set. CV is $4-$5+.

Note the unattractive hinge stain on this stamp.  ;-(

1925 Scott L168 10pi red & green
Overprint reads
"5 Rabi  al'awwal 1343" for the date of accession of King Ali
In 1925, a new ( and last) issue for the Kingdom of Hejaz was produced on the occasion of the accession of King Ali, the eldest son of Hussein. When the Saudi forces swept into Hejaz in December, 1925, King Ali and his family fled to Iraq. The issue was overprinted in black, red, and blue, and consists of twenty-five stamps total. CV is a modest $1+-$2+ for twenty stamps.

Neiji Administration of Hejaz
1925 Scott 39 1/2pi red with blue overprint
" Barid al Sultanat an Nejdia"
During 1925, some 68 overprinted issues were produced with the House of Saud overrunning Hejaz. Most are in the CV $10-$70 range. Of interest, besides overprinting the Kingdom of Hejaz postage stamps, overprinted Notarial and Railway Tax stamps of Hejaz were used, along with stamps of Turkey.

 Kingdom of Hejaz-Nejd
1926-27 Scott 100 1/2pi dull red
"Tughra of King Abdul Aziz"
The Kingdom of Hejaz-Nejd, between 1926-1932, issued 57 stamps. Thirty-four are CV <$1-$4+. A Tughra is a calligraphic monogram or seal for a sultan, and is affixed to all official documents.

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
1934 Scott 163 1g blue green
"Tughra of King Abdul Aziz"
Finally, we arrive into the era of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. And, as the issues began in 1934, there are only 26 regular stamps in the Scott classical catalogue. The design series shown above was issued between  1934-1957, and had fourteen stamps. CV is an inexpensive <$1-$2 for twelve stamps.

Hejaz Postage Due 1917 Scott LJ3 2pi magenta
"From an old Door at El Ashraf Barsbai in Shari el Ashrafiya, Cairo"
A relatively abundant eighty-two postage due stamps were issued by the Kingdoms. The stamp shown above was part of the first three stamp postage due issue in 1917. The CV for the stamps in this issue is $2. Thirty two of the postage dues are no more than CV $3+.


Deep Blue
Deep Blue (Steiner), on 37 pages, has all the major Scott numbers with spaces. Since many Saudi stamps are fairly expensive, the pages are overly generous for most WW classical collectors: certainly for me, ;-)

1925 King Ali Issue
Here are some spaces I've managed to fill in Deep Blue. Of interest, the '41/'47 Big Blue has spaces for four of this set. The '69 BB cut this series out.

Nejdi Administration of  Hejaz
1925 Scott 39B 1/2pi red with black overprint
Big Blue
The '41/'47 Big Blue  provided almost one full page for Hejaz ( one line is devoted to Horta) and 22 spaces.
Unfortunately, the '69 edition reduced the section to two lines and 9 spaces.

The '47 coverage for Hejaz
The '41/'47 has seven spaces for the T E Lawrence inspired stamps. The '69 has four spaces. All editions have five spaces for the 1922 "Arms of Sherif of Mecca" issue. The '69 edition removed the four stamp space for the 1925 "King Ali" issue, and six postage due spaces.

'69 Saudi Arabia/'41/'47 Nejd coverage in BB
The '69 edition has 17 spaces for "Saudi Arabia". Of interest, the same coverage in the '41/'47 editions is under "Nejd".

In total, The '69 BB provides 26 spaces for Hejaz and "Saudi Arabia". Coverage is 6%.

In total, the '41/'47 BB provides 39 spaces for Hejaz and "Nejd". Coverage is 9%.

As mentioned earlier, 57 stamps are CV $2 or less, so BB could conceivably double the number of spaces without causing economic hardship for the collector.

With the coverage the '69 BB has, there are two stamps with CV of ~$10, while the '41/'47 edition adds three more @ $10-$30+.

Note: For the checklist, after the coverage of the '69 Hejaz, I supplement with the '41/'47 Hejaz coverage.

Checklist 
Hejaz

'69 coverage

1917-18
L4,L8,L13,(L5),

1922
L32,L34,L35,L36,L37,

Additional '41/'47 coverage

1916-18
L1,L2,L3,

1925
L160,L162,L163,L164,

Postage Due

1917
LJ1,LJ2,

1925
LJ40,LJ41,LJ42,LJ43,

Saudi Arabia ('69)/Nejd ('41/'47)

1926
75,76,77,79,

1927
98,99,100,101,102,

1931
131,133,

1932-33
135,136,137,

1934
160,(163),(168),

Comments
A) Expensive stamps ($10 threshold):
Hejaz
1916 Scott L1 1/4pi green ($30+) ('41/'47 edition)
1916 Scott L2 1/2pi red  ($30) ('41/'47 edition)
1916 Scott L3 1pi blue ($10+) ('41/'47 edition)
Saudi Arabia/Nejd
1926 Scott 75 1/2pi orange ($10)
1932 Scott 135 1/4g blue green ($10+)

B) (  ) around a space indicates a blank space choice.

C)  Included in the checklist is the additional coverage of the '41/'47 editions for Hejaz

D) The coverage for Saudi Arabia is split in BB between Hejaz and "Saudi Arabia" ('69 edition)/ "Nejd" ('41/'47 edition).

1957 Scott 165 2 7/8g violet
"Tungra of King Abdul Aziz"
Out of the Blue
I really enjoyed learning about the history, the stamps, their design, almost everything about Hejaz/Nejd/Saudi Arabia. But the expense will hold me back from acquiring much more.

Note: Maps and photo appear to be in the public domain.

Would like a comment!



Tuesday, September 18, 2012

Hawaii

1894 Scott 76 5c rose lake 
"Statue of Kamehameha"
Quick History
About 2,000 miles south-west of California, the island group of Hawaii was an independent Kingdom until 1893, a "Provisional Government" in 1893, a Republic between 1894-1898, and then a Territory of the U.S. from 1898 until 1959, when it became a State.

Honolulu is the Capital, and the population was 150,000 in 1899. The eight major islands are Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Kahoolawe, Maui, and the island of Hawaii.

Of Polynesian settlement, Hawaii were first called the "Sandwich Islands" after the British explorer James Cook named them as such in 1778.

The inhabited islands all became under the ruler King Kamehameha in 1810, and the House of Kamehameha ruled the kingdom until 1872.

But the death of King Kamehameha V, who did not have an heir, lead to the passing of governance to the House of Kalakaua in 1874.

However, King David Kalakaua was forced to sign the "Bayonet Constitution" in 1887, so called because of the threat of violence, which eliminated much of the King's authority.

After his death in 1891, his sister, Queen Liluokalani, ascended the throne.  But a group of pro-American business leaders and residents overthrew the Kingdom in 1893, and proposed annexation to the United States. As one can imagine, this is still a sore point with many Hawaiians.

A Provisional Government was set up in 1893, and applied for annexation. But President Grover Cleveland and others were reluctant, as many held the belief that the overthrow was illegal.

The Republic of Hawaii was formed on July 4, 1894 , a not coincidental date. ;-)  After McKinley became president in 1896, annexation was again proposed. In 1898, the islands became the Territory of Hawaii.


Satellite view of Hawaii archipellago
Into the Deep Blue
The 2011 Scott Classic Specialized catalogue has, for 1851-1899, 91 major descriptions for regular and official stamps.

Dawson Cover

Hawaii has one of the all time great rarities in philately with the 1851-52 Scott 1-4 "Missionaries", so called as they were used by the American protestant missionary writers for their letters.

The 2c blue on cover is unique. Worth? North of $2,000,000. ;-)

In fact, all of the earlier twenty-eight Hawaiian stamps (1851-1863) are expensive (hundreds) to very expensive (thousands). You and I will have to content ourselves with catalogue pictures. ;-)  But reviewing the remaining 1869-1899 issues ( 63 stamps), 39 are CV $20 or less. Therefore a "representative" collection may be put together for a 'mid-level" outlay.

A closer look at the stamps and issues

Many of the interesting "mid-level" priced Hawaiian stamps feature portraits of the rulers and family during the days of the Hawaiian kingdom. Let's take a closer look, and, as a benefit,  become more familiar with the Hawaiian monarchy.


 1886 Scott 30 1c purple 
Princess Victoria Kamamalu
The 1864-86 issue had five stamps, all with portraits of royalty. The 1c purple, here rather faded, shows Victoria Kamamalu, granddaughter of King Kamehameha, and sister of the King's Kamehameha IV and V. She was the "Kuhina Nui of the Hawaiian Islands" from 1855-63, a type of Prime Minister/ Regent position to the Kings. She died at a young age of 27 without marriage or children, and the House of Kamehameha still had no obvious heirs.


1864-66 Scott 31 2c rose vermilion
"King Kamehameha IV"
This stamp has a portrait of Kamehameha IV, Victoria's brother, and King from 1855-63. In 1862, he translated the Book of Common Prayer into the native Hawaiian language. The King and Queen Emma built a hospital, The Queen's Medical Center, to help combat leprosy and influenza. He also died young, at age 29, without any living children.


1871 Scott 33 6c yellow green
"King Kamehameha V"
His brother, Kamehameha V, succeeded him and reigned from 1863-72. He revived traditional practices, and brought back Kahuna, native practitioners of sorcery, magic, or wizardry.


1882 Scott 39 5c ultramarine
"Kamehameha V"
King Kamehameha V was the last in the line of the House of Kamehameha, as he too died without children.

This particular stamp design was first issued in 1866 in a blue color. It can be distinguished from the later 1882 issue (shown above), as the 1866 stamp has traces of the rectangular frame lines surrounding the design.

For a review of this, as well as all the Hawaiian stamps, check out this GREAT site.



1871 Scott 34 18c dull rose
"Mataio Kekuanaoa"
Mataio Kekuanaoa was the father of King Kamehameha IV and V, and served as  Kuhina Nui from 1863-64. He is somewhat underrated in philatelic history literature, "often referred to only as the King's chamberlain, responsible for emptying the spittoon".


2c1875 Scott 35 2c brown
"King David Kalakaua"
When King Kamehameha V died without heirs in 1872, a popular vote was held, and William Lunalilo, a cousin, was elected.  But Lunalilo died in 1874, and Kalahaua was elected to replace him. Kalahaua  promised to put native Hawaiians back into the Kingdom's government, which was dominated by non natives.

Known as "The Merrie Monarch", he had a fondness for the joyful part of life. He revived the hula dance, which had been banned previously. 

But he was to be the last reigning King.

The "Missionary Party" wanted to reform the monarchy after the constitutional monarchy model of the United Kingdom, where the monarch had very little real power over the government. 

And by 1877,  members of the Hawaiian League, who favored annexation, had the King sign, at gun point,  the apply named "Bayonet Constitution". This deprived the King of much of his former monarchic powers, and disenfranchised many ethnic Hawaiians from voting rights.


1884 Scott 44 10c red brown
"King David Kalakaua"
The King's health deteriorated, and with the advice of his physician, he traveled to San Francisco. He died in 1891 at the Palace Hotel there.

Palace Hotel, San Francisco, 1887
Destroyed by fire in the 1906 earthquake
"New" Palace Hotel at same location: Market & New Montgomery Street
After the King died, his sister, Queen Liliuokalini, became Queen of the Hawaiian Islands.


1882 Scott 37 1c blue "Princess Likelike"
Princess Likelike was the sister of King David Kalakaua and Queen Liliuokalani. Her image is part of a five stamp issue of 1882. She married a Scottish Victorian gentleman twice her age, who naturally wished to rule the household as "lord of his castle". She, being of Hawaiian nobility, was used to ruling others. The marriage did not go well.


1891 Scott 52 2c dull violet
"Queen Liliuokalani"
When King David Kalakaua died in 1891, his sister Liliuokalani became Queen.

In 1893,  a group of Americans and Europeans formed a Committee of Safety, seeking to overthrow the Hawaiian Kingdom. As the coup d'état was occurring, the Committee expressed concern about the safety of American citizens. 162 Marines came ashore from the USS Boston. The Queen was deposed, yielding to "the superior military forces of the United States". Subsequently, the Queen was arrested in 1895, after a failed counter-revolution, and sentenced to five years imprisonment by a military tribunal. She then agreed to abdicate her throne in return for commutation of death sentences of her supporters, and she was released.


1893 Scott 55 1c green 
Overprinted  in red "Provisional Govt. 1893"
The new Provisional Government overprinted the Kingdom stamps in 1893 as shown. Thirteen stamps were overprinted in red. They didn't particularly care to use the old monarchy stamps, but what could they do?


1893 Scott 66 2c rose
Overprinted in black
Ten more stamps were overprinted in black. 

The Provisional Government expected quick annexation by the United States, but opinions had changed. Grover Cleveland delayed annexation, and demanded the restoration of the Queen. In fact, there were rumors that there might be a US intervention to bring back the Kingdom.


1894 Scott 77 10c yellow green "Stars and Palms"
Quickly, a Constitutional Convention was called, and on July 4, 1894, the Republic of Hawaii was declared.

A six stamp set was issued in 1894, including this very American themed "Stars and Palms".

As it turned out, the Republic had to wait four years before the US was again interested in annexation.


1899 Scott 80 1c "Coat of Arms"
In 1898, the US annexed the Territory of Hawaii. A three stamp set was released in celebration (relief?) of this milestone. The designs, although in different colors, were similar to the preceding issue.

On June 13, 1900 all Hawaiian stamps became invalid for postage, and stamps of the United States were in the Hawaiian post offices on June 14, 1900.


Deep Blue
Deep Blue (Steiner) has all the major Scott numbers having spaces on six pages. Included are four spaces for the "Missionaries".  ;-)


1894 Scott 75 2c brown "View of Honolulu"
Big Blue
Big Blue '69, on one page, has 33 spaces for the stamp issues of 1864-1899. Ignoring the earlier very expensive stamps (28), Scott has 63 major descriptions left for the time frame above. Coverage, therefore, is 52%, a healthy percentage for these mid-expensive stamps.

Eleven stamps are CV >$10, with two reaching the $35 "most expensive" threshold.
1871 Scott 34 18c dull rose "Mataio Kekuanaoa"  ($37+)
1893 Scott 71 18c dull rose "Mataio Kekuanaoa" OP in black ($35)

Checklist

1864-75
30,31,35,32,33,34,(36),

1882-91
37,42,43,39,40 or 44 or 45, (41),52,

1893
53,54,55,56,57,58,59,

1893
66,67,68,70,71,

1894-99
74,80,75,81,
76,82,77,


Comments
A) Expensive stamps ($10 threshold):
1866 Scott 32 5c blue ($30)
1871 Scott 34 18c dull rose ($37+)
1875 (Scott 36) 12c black ($20+)
1884 Scott 45 10c vermilion ($10+)
1882 (Scott 41) 15c red brown ($20+)
1893 Scott 56 2c brown ($10+)
1893 Scott 58 5c deep indigo ($10+)
1893 Scott 67 10c vermilion ($20)
1893 Scott 68 10c red brown ($10)
1893 Scott 70 15c red brown ($20+)
1893 Scott 71 18c dull rose ($35)

B) (  ) around a number indicates a blank space choice.



1899 Scott 5c blue "Statue of Kamehameha"
Out of the Blue
Stamps bring History to Life.


Note; Map satellite photo, and Palace Hotel photo, and pic of Dawson cover appear to be in the public domain.

Comments?